00181 Contamination

Domain 11: security/protection
Class 4: environment hazards
Diagnostic Code: 00181
Nanda label: pollution
Diagnostic focus: pollution
Approved 2006 • Revised 2017 • Evidence level 2.1

NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition

Nanda nursing diagnosis « pollution ” is defined as: exposure to environmental pollutants in sufficient doses to cause adverse health effects.

Definite characteristics


  • Dermatological effects of exposure to pesticides
  • Gastrointestinal effects of exposure to pesticides
  • Neurological effects of exposure to pesticides
  • Pulmonary effects of exposure to pesticides
  • Renal effects of exposure to pesticides


  • Dermatological effects of chemical exposure
  • Gastrointestinal effects of chemical exposure
  • Immunological effects of chemical exposure
  • Neurological effects of chemical exposure
  • Pulmonary effects of chemical exposure
  • Renal effects of chemical exposure

Biological products

  • Dermatological effects of biological exposure
  • Gastrointestinal effects of biological exposure
  • Neurological effects of biological exposure
  • Pulmonary effects of biological exposure
  • Renal effects of biological exposure


  • Neurological effects of pollution exposure
  • Pulmonary effects of pollution exposure

Waste products

  • Dermatological effects of exposure to waste products
  • Gastrointestinal effects of exposure to waste products
  • Hepatic effects of exposure to waste products
  • Pulmonary effects of exposure to waste products


  • Genetic effects on radiotherapy exposure
  • Immunological effects of radiotherapy exposure
  • Neurological effects of radiotherapy exposure
  • Oncological effects of radiotherapy exposure

Related factors

External factors

  • Female soils
  • Chemical contamination of food
  • Chemical water pollution
  • Descamination, discharge of surfaces in the presence of young children
  • Inadequate decomposition of pollutants
  • Inadequate domestic hygiene practices
  • Inadequate municipal services
  • Inadequate personal hygiene practices
  • Inadequate protection clothes
  • Inappropriate use of protection clothes
  • People who have ingested contaminated material
  • Play in places where environmental pollutants are used
  • Exposure to unprotected chemicals
  • Exposure to unprotected heavy metals
  • Exposure to unprotected radioactive material
  • Use of environmental pollutants at home
  • Use of harmful material in an insufficiently ventilated area
  • Use of harmful material without effective protection

Internal factors

  • Concomitant exhibition
  • Malnutrition
  • smoking

Risk population

  • Child of age <5 years
  • People at economic disadvantage
  • Exposed people perinatally
  • People exposed to areas with high levels of pollution
  • People exposed to atmospheric pollution
  • People exposed to bioterrorism
  • People exposed to disaster
  • People with a history of exposure to pollutants
  • Older adults
  • Pregnant women
  • Women

Associated problems

  • Preexisting diseases
  • Radiation therapy

Suggestions of use

As it is written, it seems that this diagnosis is made to be used with individuals more than communities, although some interventions could be community. Do not use this diagnosis for all patients who have been exposed to any small amount of environmental pollutant. We are all exposed, daily, at least some dose of environmental pollutants. This diagnosis should only be used if the person suffers adverse effects on their health, or if the dose was high enough to expect such effects (even if symptoms have not yet appeared). If the pollutant is latex, use the most specific diagnosis of allergic response to latex.

Suggested alternative diagnostics

Other examples

The patient will be able to:

  • Identify how pollution occurred (at work, in the community, at home, etc.)
  • Identify methods to avoid future pollution
  • Eliminate or modify factors of your personal environment that contribute to pollution

NIC Interventions

  • Ventilation assistance: promotion of a spontaneous ventilatory pattern
  • optimal that maximizes oxygen exchange and carbon dioxide in the lungs
  • Classification: Disasters: Establishment of priorities in patient care to provide emergency treatments during the shortage of resources
  • Neurological control and monitoring: Patient data collection and analysis to prevent or reduce possible neurological complications
  • Respiratory control and monitoring: Patient data collection and analysis to ensure the permeability of the respiratory tract and an appropriate gas exchange
  • Skin care: topical treatments: application of topical substances or device manipulation to facilitate skin integrity and reduce damage
  • Emergency care: Manage life support measures in situations that put life at risk
  • Energy management: regulate the use of energy to treat or prevent fatigue and optimize functions
  • Liquid management: Promotion of liquid balance and the prevention of complications that result from abnormal or unwanted levels of liquid levels
  • Sample management: obtaining, preparation and conservation of a sample for a laboratory test
  • Vital signs monitoring: collection and analysis of cardiovascular and respiratory data, as well as body temperature, to determine and prevent complications
  • Community preparation for a disaster: level of preparation of a community to respond to a large -scale natural disaster
  • Infection protection: prevention and early detection of infections in a risk patient
  • Protection against environmental risks: Prevent and detect diseases and injuries in populations at risk of environmental hazards
  • Nutritional therapy: Food and liquid administration that support the metabolic processes of a malnourished patient or with high risk of malnutrition
  • Surveillance: Collection, interpretation and synthesis of patient data, continuously and with an end, to make clinical decisions
  • Skin surveillance: Patient data collection and analysis to maintain the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes

Nursing Activities

In general, nursing activities for this diagnosis should focus on modifying related factors, or etiologies, pollution, which vary widely. Some examples are described below:


  • Monitor the systemic effects (dermatological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, renal, etc.) of exposure to polluting
  • Determine where and how exposure to pollutant occurred
  • (NIC) Classification: Disasters
    • Obtain information about the nature of the problem, emergency, accident or disaster
    • Identify the main complaint of the patient
    • Verify medical alert indicators, as necessary
    • Perform a primary examination of all body systems, as necessary
    • Review the presence of injuries or emergency situations that put life at risk

Patient and family education

  • Make sure the family knows if there are high levels of pollutants in their geographical area
  • Instruct about the dangers of being passive smoker
  • Provide information about the use of protective clothing, for example, when pesticides are used

Collaboration activities

  • Communicate the patient’s situation to the organisms in charge of environmental protection


  • Know where you can quickly find the rules, procedures and protocols of decontamination
  • (NIC) Classification: Disasters
    • Evaluate critical patients in the field
    • Evacuate injured people, as required
    • Determine the priority order of patients for treatment
    • Place an appropriate identification indicated by the patient’s condition

At home

  • Find painting and peeling at home, especially if it is an old house
  • Assess the presence of other pollutants at home, such as mold, pesticides or smoke
  • Teach patients to follow safe methods in food preparation and storage
  • Instruct patients about the control of animal vectors and guests (mosquitoes, rats, etc.)
  • Help the patient identify ways to prevent them from moving to pollutants from the workplace (for example, changing clothes when leaving work, if possible; if not, shed work clothes and shower outside house before returning home)