00102 Self -Care Deficit In Food

Domain 4: activity/rest
class 5: self -care
Diagnostic Code: 00102
Nanda label: self -care deficit in food
Diagnostic focus: self -care: food
Approved 1980 • Revised 1998, 2008, 2017 • Level of evidence 2.1

NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition

Nanda nursing diagnosis « self -care deficit in food is defined as: inability to eat independently.

Definite characteristics

  • Difficulty to take food to the mouth
  • Difficulty chewing food
  • Difficulty to put food in the utensil
  • Difficulty managing utensils
  • Difficulty manipulating food in the mouth
  • Difficulty opening containers
  • Difficulty in taking a glass
  • Difficulty preparing food
  • Difficulty to take a complete meal
  • Difficulty to eat by itself acceptably
  • Difficulty to swallow food
  • Difficulty to swallow enough food
  • Difficulty using an assistance device

Related factors

  • Anxiety
  • Cognitive dysfunction
  • Decreased motivation
  • Limitations of the environment
  • Fatigue
  • Neurocomportal manifestations
  • Pain
  • Weakness

Associated problems

  • Musculoskeletic deterioration
  • Neuromuscular diseases

Suggestions of use

The self -care deficit describes a state in which the person experiences inability to carry out self -care activities such as bathing, dressing, eating and going to the toilet. If the person is unable to perform any self -care, the situation is described as a total self -care deficit. However, diagnoses are classified as more specific problems, each with their defining characteristics. These problems can occur alone or in several combinations, such as self -care deficit: food, bathroom, dress and use of the toilet.
Self -care deficits are usually caused by intolerance to activity; deterioration of physical mobility ’, pain, acute or chronic; Anxiety, or perceptual or cognitive deterioration (for example, self -care deficit: food + 2 related to disorientation). As an etiology, the deficit of self -care can cause depression, fear of becoming dependent and impotence [for example, fear of becoming totally dependent related to total self -care deficit + 2 secondary to residual weakness due to stroke (stroke])].

The self -care deficit should be used to label only those conditions in which the objective is to support or improve the patient’s self -care skills. The results and evaluation criteria of these labels must reflect an improvement in operation. Therefore, if the diagnosis is used for states that cannot be treated, the achievement of the results raised cannot be expected. Nursing interventions in this case have a double approach: (a) improve the patient’s ability to perform self -care, and (b) help patients with limitations and carry out the care that the patient cannot perform. P>

Self -care deficit: food, it can be the etiology (that is, the related factor) of nutritional imbalance: intake lower than the body’s requirements. See also the analysis of the self -care deficit.
The functional level of the patient should be classified by a standardized scale, such as the following:

0 = totally independent
1 = You need to use equipment or some device
2 = You need the help of another person to receive support, supervision or teaching
3 = You need the help of another person and team, or some device
4 = It is dependent, does not participate in the activity

Suggested alternative diagnostics

Other examples

  • Accept that a caregiver feeds it
  • It feeds independently (or specify the level)
  • Express satisfaction with your diet and the ability to eat for yourself
  • Demonstrates an adequate intake of food and liquids
  • Use adaptive devices to eat
  • Open containers and prepare food

NIC Interventions

  • Food: Provision of nutritional intake to a patient who is unable to feed on himself
  • Support for self -care: Food: Help a person to eat
  • Canalization: obtaining the services of another institution or health care provider
  • Nutrition control: patient data collection and analysis to prevent or reduce malnutrition
  • Nutrition management: help or provision of a balanced intake of food and liquids
  • swallow therapy: facilitation of swallowing and prevention of complications derived from a deterioration of swallowing

Nursing Activities


  • Evaluate the ability to use auxiliary devices
  • Evaluate the energy level and activity tolerance
  • Assess whether the ability to feed independently improves or deteriorates
  • Assess the presence of a sensory, cognitive or physical deterioration that could hinder food independently
  • Assess the ability to chew and swallow
  • Assess the nutritional value of intake

Patient and family education

  • Demonstrate the use of auxiliary devices and adaptive activities
  • Teach alternative methods to eat and drink; Specify the method and teaching plan

Collaboration activities

  • Channel to the patient and relatives to social services to obtain health support in the home
  • Apply occupational and physical therapy to plan patient care
  • (NIC) Support for self -care: food: supply an adequate analgesic before meals, as required


  • Adapt to cognitive deterioration in the following ways:
    • Avoid the use of sharp cutlery (such as meat knives)
    • Verify if there is food on the cheeks
    • Make meals in a quiet environment to avoid distractions
    • Maintain brief and simple verbal communication
  • Serve one food at the same time in small quantities
  • Recognize and strengthen the patient’s achievements
  • Promote independence to eat and drink, and help the patient only if necessary
  • Encourage the patient to wear teeth and glasses
  • Provide privacy to the patient during meals if you feel self -conscious
  • When feeding, allow the patient to determine the order of food
  • Sit during food; Do not do it with hurry
  • Serve foods that can be eaten with hands (for example, fruits, bread) to encourage independence
  • Include parents and relatives at the time of meals and food
  • (NIC) Support for self -care: food ’.
    • Create a pleasant atmosphere during meals (for example, remove urinals, comfortable and suction equipment, and put them out of view)
    • Perform oral hygiene before eating
    • Organize food in the tray, if necessary, such as cutting the meat or peeling an egg
    • Be careful not to put the food where I can’t see it
    • Provide a straw to drink, if the patient needs or wishes
    • Provide adaptive devices that help the patient to feed independently (for example, long handles, handles of large circumferences, or covered with small clamping systems), as required
    • Provide frequent signals and constantly supervise, as required

At home

  • For patients who must be fed, teach caregivers to observe and report the signs and symptoms of dysphagia (for example, sound of gorgage when speaking, threads, cough, drowning signs)
  • Do not insist on feeding a terminal sick patient who does not want it

Babies and Children

  • Adapt communication to the child’s development stage

Older people

  • Organize meals for the patient to eat with other people; Whenever possible, allow the patient to serve the food of a container
  • Evaluate the adjustment and status of the denture
  • Do not press the patient during diet